There are basically eight methods and approaches for Translation. *Drumrollllll* They are;
a) Literal Translation - this is the process where you (translator/user) translate words or phrases literally word-by- word without really follow any grammatical rules.
b) Borrowing - is basically the taking of words directly from one language into another. For instance, 'teknologi' into 'technology'.
c) Transference - is translating words to another language but remain some words without any changes. For instance, you translate words from Bahasa into English, yet you remain the word 'batik' as it is in Bahasa.
d) Calque - is a phrase borrowed from another language and is translated into another language word-by-word.
e) Oblique - The combinations of all the approaches for there are words that cannot be translated using all these approaches, hence, we use oblique.
f) Transposition - When you translate SL (source language) into TL (target language) using the nearest approach to come across the same meaning.
g) Moduation - This is when a translator translates words by using his/her own competence and understanding, but the meaning of the words are still the same.
h) Adaptation / Equivalence - Take the word 'equivalence' which means 'perumpamaan' such as bagai, seperti and bak. So it is usually used when it involves idioms and proverbs.